Bibliography Of Turbulent Flows 1980-2002

by P. Bradshaw


This is an introduction to a computer-readable list of over 10000 selected references on turbulence and associated numerical and experimental techniques, with short abstracts written by Bradshaw. It covers the period 1980 to 2002, with some earlier and later entries, and includes reports and other easily-available documents as well as journal papers. All have been read, and judged to be useful, by Bradshaw. The files are available on the World Wide Web from

Original papers are not available!


This collection of references, assembled over a period of years by the author, is divided into three main parts.

(i) File intro (this .HTML document). The Web site also contains the utility programs described in Section 3.

(ii) Annual ref files: "ref73" contains complex turbulent flow references (index categories 41 and above - see Section 2) up to 1972. Files "ref80", "ref81".... through "ref02" contain general references on turbulence and associated subjects for 1980 onward. Entries for a given year are generally in order of reading by this author, but reasonable care has been taken to keep periodicals in date order. ``ref73'' is sorted into index categories, entries in each category being in alphabetical order of senior author irrespective of date. ``ref80'' contains some pre-1980 references, in year order. All other files contain entries for the year indicated by the last two characters of the filename.

Entries are in plain ASCII text, and in absolutely standard format on the assumption that most searching will be done by computer. Where possible, "unpublished" versions of papers (especially conference papers) have been deleted in favor of the published version, unless the former is referred to by the latter or is obviously more comprehensive than the final publication. Total is over 2MB of information. The concatenation of all annual files "r" is available on the Web site. Note that although sorting annual files by name puts "ref00", etc. first, the utility that creates "r" produces proper year order.

(iii) refsnnn: the same entries as in the ref files, but sorted according to the index categories nnn listed below - one file per main category or important sub-category: e.g. refs116 contains references on combustion (sub-category 11.6). Entries in each file are generally in year order, many references appearing in more than one category.

Each entry has five lines, for

Index category and abstract

Some lines are longer than 80 characters, so a text editor which wraps, rather than truncates, long lines is needed.

A typical entry is as follows:

..13.0,41.0:original ARAP model*
Calculation of turbulent shear flows through closure of the Reynolds equations by invariant modeling*
ARAP, Inc. Rept. 127*
1972. `

Each line ends with a "*", except the last which ends with an "open single quote", ASCII char. 96, ` ,(originating as the Pound Sterling sign on a British keyboard).

On the first line, the ".." marker is followed by the index categories - e.g. "13.0" is "transport-equation turbulence models" - arranged in decreasing order of interest to the present author at the time of indexing. The main categories were chosen in 1980 (categories from 40 upwards date from 1972). A completely logical system is impossible: longitudinal vortices usually have leading category 54, but wingtip vortices would have leading category 59.2 (airfoils), while flows around surface-mounted obstacles usually have leading category 45 (skew-induced secondary flows) rather than 54 - but should also appear in 59.2 in the case of wing-body junctions, in 44.2 (turbomachinery) in the case of blade-annulus junctions, and in 61 in the case of bluff obstacles. Many index numbers have one or two minor categories but these are not intended to be exhaustive - for example blade-annulus junctions are not usually indexed under 59.2 as well as 44.2 - so the user needs to use some initiative. Multiple categories are in the form "ij.k,lm.n" with no space after the comma, so that a search routine can distinguish an index category from a source like "J. Fluid Mech. 11, 97". Searching for "..ij." or "..ij.k" yields leading entries only, ",lm.n" yields secondary entries only, while searching for "ij.k" or "ij." yields both leading and secondary entries. The categories are separated by a colon, ":", from the present author's one-line abstract (if any). The abstract is intended to contain any useful keywords not present in the title. It is always informal, and occasionally mildly disrespectful - please remember that this bibliography was set up for private use, and is put on the Web as a public service with no guarantees.

Authors are separated by a semicolon, ";". ET AL. is used where the number of authors exceeds three, and ANON. for conference preprint collections and other works with no identifiable author or editor.

Where necessary, the title line is an English translation of the foreign language original, usually without indication of the original language (French, German or occasionally Russian), which should be obvious from the source.

The source line specifies journal, publisher, report series etc. The style is not completely uniform but journal title abbreviations are generally those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. To prevent confusion with index categories, page numbers (at the end of the line) are not followed by a period, and other strings like "ij." have been avoided. Journals whose pagination is continuous throughout a volume are cited as "J. Fluid Mech. 123, 456" while monthlies appear in more explicit form as "BYTE vol. 10, no. 11, p. 12 - again note the spaces after commas and periods to avoid all confusion with index categories. In references to individual papers in conference proceedings, the editors' names are given in the source line after the proceedings title, e.g. "(T. Cebeci, ed.)" and the paper authors' names in the author line.

The final (date) line is in the form 19nn. ` " with a space between the period and the "open quote": index categories run up to 62., so dates up to 1962 are written with a space before the period so that a computer search will not pick up the last two digits of the date instead of an index category.

The index categories are broadly:

01.0 to 12.0 - simple turbulent flows and basic phenomena;
13.0 to 15.0 - turbulence models;
16.0 to 24.0 - thin shear layers;
25.0 to 32.0 - numerical and experimental techniques;
33.0 to 40.0 - currently blank;
41.0 to 62.0 - "complex" turbulent flows (as distinct from simple shear layers).

When a main entry category is divided into only two "decimal" sections, e.g. 18.1, 18.2, the first is generally on theoretical or computational work, while the second is more practically relevant or more directly related to experimental work. Note however that Direct Numerical Simulations are indexedin as "experiments" in the appropriate category (Large Eddy Simulations, which use empirical sub-grid-scale models, have their own subsection). Multiple sub-divisions, as in category 25 "Numerical Methods", indicate an expansion of the subject since the main categories were chosen, mostly in 1980. Partly for this reason, file sizes vary greatly, the largest being "refs250" at over 300kB.

The categorized files REFSnnn were extracted using the Unix "awk" utility, available for Microsoft Windows or MS-DOS in the MKS Toolkit from Mortice Kern Systems, - see for example the "sortweb" and "SORTALL.BAT" utilities (Section 3). Files for some important subsections (e.g. "refs256" for large-eddy simulation) are available as subsets of the main file.

Note that that some Unix-derived formatting programs use a "." at the beginning of a line to signal a formatting command and will therefore ignore the abstract line with its leading ".." - this is convenient if only the formal part of the reference is to be printed, but it is easy to change the ".." to some other block marker.


refs010 01. Conditional sampling and bursts
01.1 Conditional sampling - velocity
01.2 Conditional sampling - temperature

refs020 02. Intermittency and large eddies

02.1 Intermittency - vel.
02.2 Intermittency - temp.

refs030 03. Reverse transition

refs040 04. Low Reynolds number (turbulent) flows

refs050 05. Sublayer, including conditional sampling of the inner layer

05.0 Experimental (mainly)
05.1 Computational/Theor.
05.5 Free surface (as zero-shear b.c.: see 44.1 for waves)

refs060 06. Roughness, boundary-layer thickeners

refs070 07. Inner layer, skin-friction and profile formulae (not structure)

refs080 08. Suction and injection

refs090 09. Non-Newtonian fluids and drag reduction

09.1 Non-Newtonian, inc. compliant walls for drag reduction
09.2 Two-phase, particles, bubbles for drag reduction
09.3 Large-eddy break-up devices (LEBUs)
09.4 Surface grooves and riblets
09.5 Other drag reduction schemes

refs100 10. Plumes, including lateral heat transfer

refs110 11. Heat or concentration transfer

11.1 Theory
11.2 Thin shear layers
11.3 Complex flows
11.4 Inner layer
11.5 Heat transfer and injection
refs116 11.6 Combustion and mixing

refs120 12. Miscellaneous turbulence

12.1 Misc. turb. expt.
12.2 Misc. turb. theory, inc. Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT)
12.3 Shear expts.

refs130 13. Shear-stress transport ("second moment") models

refs140 14. Eddy viscosity transport models (e.g. k, epsilon).

refs150 15. Equilibrium calc. models (e.g. algebraic eddy viscosity)

refs160 16. Three dimensional thin shear layers (TSLs)

16.1 Theory
16.2 Expt.

refs170 17. Unsteady flow

17.1 Unsteady
17.2 Dynamic stall of aerofoils

refs180 18. Compressible TSLs

18.1 Theory
18.2 Expt.

refs190 19. Homogeneous turbulence

19.1 Grid turb. expt.
19.2 Local isotropy and small scales
19.3 Grid turb. misc. theory (unsheared)
19.4 Theory - Kraichnan school
19.5 Burgers' equation ("Burgulence")

refs200 20. Far wakes

refs210 21. Jets

21.1 Theory
21.2 Expt.
21.3 Convection vel.

refs220 22. Noise

refs221 22.1 Acoustics
refs222 22.2 Conferences, reviews, textbooks < P>

refs230 23. Surface pressure fluctuations

refs240 24. Transition

refs241 24.1 Mixing layer structure and transition
24.2 Transition theory
24.3 " fixing
24.4 " expt.
24.5 Laminar shear flows
24.6 Second-order BL theory
24.7 Vortex methods
24.8 LBL control by heating

refs250 25. Computational techniques

25.1 Maths and text books
25.2 Numerical (general)
25.3 Inviscid and panel methods
25.4 Thin shear layer num.
refs255 25.5 Navier-Stokes num.
refs256 25.6 Turbulence simulation (LES, etc)
25.7 Euler equation num.
25.8 Finite elements
25.9 Secondary flow num.(yz-plane elliptic)
25.10 Grid generation

refs260 26. Transonic/supersonic potential

26.1 M > 1
26.2 M = 1

refs270 27. Viscous/inviscid interaction

27.1 Attached interaction and trailing edge flows
27.2 Separated interaction (reversed flow)
27.3 Streamwise-corner and slender-flow calcs.
27.4 Multi-element aerofoils

refs280 28. Data analysis and computers

28.1 Data analysis (including analog electronics)
28.2 Digital computers
refs283 28.3 Microcomputers

refs290 29. Experimental techniques

29.1 Techniques (general)
29.2 Pressure probes
29.3 Manometers, pressure transducers
29.4 Misc. anemometers
29.5 Skin-friction meters
29.6 Flow visualisation

refs300 30. Wind tunnels

30.1 Tunnels, mech. and general
30.2 " , aerodynamics
30.3 Tunnel descriptions
30.4 Tunnel diffusers
30.5 Shock tunnels
30.6 Ludwieg tubes
refs310 31. Hot wire anemometers
31.1 Hot wires
31.2 HWA for vel. and temp., or compressible flow
31.3 Concentration measurements
refs320 32. Other turbulence meas. techniques
32.1 Laser doppler
32.2 PIV and misc. turb. meas.

40+ - "Complex" flows. ".1" cats not listed below are for lesser, or purely computational, papers

refs410 41. Calculation methods

refs420 42. Buoyancy and CAT

42.1 Buoyancy
42.2 Meteorology and Kelvin-Helmholtz
42.3 Laboratory-scale convection

refs430 43. Atmospheric surface layer

43.1 Surface layer
43.2 3D meteorology

refs440 44. Body forces and turbomachinery

44.1 Waves in body-force fields, and free-surface flows
refs442 44.2 Turbomachinery
44.3 3D effects in 2D flows

refs450 45. Secondary flow (lst kind, including imbedded vortices)

refs460 46. " " (2nd kind - stress-induced)

refs470 47. "Slender" flows

47.1 Axisymm. slender
47.2 Ships

refs480 48. Shear layer interactions

refs490 49. Diffusers (see also 30.4)

refs500 50. Free stream turbulence or shear

refs510 51. Wall jets

refs520 52. Coanda effect - curved wall jets

refs530 53. Streamline curvature effects

refs540 54. Vortices, swirl and stretching

refs550 55. Lateral divergence

refs560 56. Flow near separation

refs570 57. Weak perturbations (e.g. roughness change) < P>

refs580 58. Change of species (e.g. BL to mixing layer at separation)

refs590 59. Strong perturbations and separated flows

59.0,59.1 Subsonic separated flows
refs592 59.2 Aerofoils
59.3 Trailing edges and near wakes

refs600 60. M > 0 strong perturbations and shock/BL interaction

refs610 61. 3D perturbations

refs620 62. Perturbed jets


(1) Unix These files cannot be executed on line!

sortweb joins the annual files into one file called "r" and uses the awk language to generate the "refsnnn" sorted files. Details are in sortweb.txt.

Files pb and bp are Unix scripts (originally run under SGI Irix) using the awk language (a subset of nawk to search the files for keywords and output the complete entry for each hit. Details are in pb.txt and bp.txt.

(2) MS-DOS/Windows (change file names to suit your system)

SORTALL.BAT is the equivalent of sortweb, above, producing R.DOC.

RMAKE.BAT joins the annual files into R.DOC, as SORTALL.BAT does, but without generating sorted files - much faster, but useful mainly to generate the (2MB plus) R.DOC file if the other files are being transferred on 1.44MB diskette.

AWKKEYR.BAT is an MS-DOS file invoking the MKS Toolkit Windows version of awk. Typing ``AWKKEYR file key'' searches file for one keyword key, and outputs the complete entry for each hit, followed by a blank line for ease of reading, into a scratch file with extension .DOC. It is the equivalent of bp.

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Last updated 18 Sep. 2007